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The Resource Plant biochemistry, Hans-Walter Heldt, Birgit Piechulla ; in cooperation with Fiona Heldt

Plant biochemistry, Hans-Walter Heldt, Birgit Piechulla ; in cooperation with Fiona Heldt

Label
Plant biochemistry
Title
Plant biochemistry
Statement of responsibility
Hans-Walter Heldt, Birgit Piechulla ; in cooperation with Fiona Heldt
Creator
Contributor
Subject
Language
eng
Cataloging source
UKM
http://library.link/vocab/creatorName
Heldt, Hans-Walter
Dewey number
572.2
Illustrations
illustrations
Index
index present
Literary form
non fiction
http://library.link/vocab/relatedWorkOrContributorName
Piechulla, Birgit
http://library.link/vocab/subjectName
  • Botanical chemistry
  • Plant physiology
  • Plants
Label
Plant biochemistry, Hans-Walter Heldt, Birgit Piechulla ; in cooperation with Fiona Heldt
Instantiates
Publication
Note
Translation of the 4th German edition [of Pflanzenbiochemie]
Bibliography note
Includes bibliographical references and index
Contents
  • 1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments -- 1.1. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability -- The cell wall consists mainly of carbohydrates and proteins -- Plasmadesmata connect neighboring cells -- 1.2. Vacuoles have multiple functions -- 1.3. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria -- 1.4. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts -- 1.5. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are formed -- 1.6. The endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus form a network for the distribution of biosynthesis products -- 1.7. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -- 1.8. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites between different compartments -- 1.9. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and products -- Metabolite transport is achieved by a conformational change of the translocator -- Aquaporins make cell membranes permeable for water -- 1.10. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity -- 1.11. Porins consist of β-sheet structures -- Further reading -- 2. The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of life on earth -- 2.1. How did photosynthesis start? -- 2.2. Pigments capture energy from sunlight -- The energy content of light depends on its wavelength -- Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment -- 2.3. Light absorption excites the chlorophyll molecule -- 2.4. An antenna is required to capture light -- How is the excitation energy of the photons captured in the antennae and transferred to the reaction centers? -- The function of an antenna is illustrated by the antenna of photosystem II -- Phycobilisomes enable cyanobacteria and red algae to carry out photosynthesis even in dim light -- Further reading -- 3. Photosynthesis is an electron transport process -- 3.1. The Photosynthetic machinery is constructed from modules -- 3.2. A reductant and an oxidant are formed during photosynthesis -- 3.3. The basic structure of a photosynthetic reaction center has been resolved by X-ray structure analysis -- X-ray structure analysis of the photosynthetic reaction center -- The reaction center of Rhodopseudomonas viridis has a symmetrical structure -- 3.4. How does a reaction center function? -- 3.5. Two photosynthetic reaction centers are arranged in tandem in photosynthesis of algae and plants -- 3.6. Water is split by photosystem II -- Photosystem II complex is very similar to the reaction center in purple bacteria -- Mechanized agriculture usually necessitates the use of herbicides -- 3.7. The cytochrome-b6lf complex mediates electron transport between photosystem II and photosystem I -- Iron atoms in cytochromes and in iron-sulfur centers have a central function as redox carriers -- The electron transport by the cytochrome-b6lf complex is coupled to a proton transport -- The number of protons pumped through the cyt-b6lf complex can be doubled by a Q-cycle -- 3.8. Photosystem I reduces NADP+ -- The light energy driving the cyclic electron transport of PSI is only utilized for the synthesis of ATP -- 3.9. In the absence of other acceptors electrons can be transferred from photosystem I to oxygen -- 3.10. Regulatory processes control the distribution of the captured photons between the two photosystems -- Excess light energy is eliminated as heat -- Further reading -- 4. ATP is generated by photosynthesis -- 4.1. A proton gradient serves as an energy-rich intermediate state during ATP synthesis -- 4.2. The electron chemical proton gradient can be dissipated by uncouplers to heat -- The chemiosmotic hypothesis was proved experimentally -- 4.3. H+-ATP synthases from bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria have a common basic structure -- X-ray structure analysis of the F1 part of ATP synthase yields an insight into the machinery of ATP synthesis -- 4.4. The synthesis of ATP is effected by a conformation change of the protein -- In photosynthetic electron transport the stoichiometry between the formation of NADPH and ATP is still a matter of debate -- H+-ATP synthase of chloroplasts is regulated by light -- V-ATPase is related to the F-ATP synthase -- Further reading -- 5. Mitochondria are the power station of the cell -- 5.1. Biological oxidation is preceded by a degradation of substrates to form bound hydrogen and CO2 -- 5.2. Mitochondria are the sites of cell respiration -- Mitochondria form a separated metabolic compartment -- 5.3. Degradation of substrates applicable for biological oxidation takes place in the matrix compartment -- Pyruvate is oxidized by a multienzyme complex -- Acetate is completely oxidized in the citrate cycle -- A loss of intermediates of the citrate cycle is replenished by anaplerotic reactions -- 5.4. How much energy can be gained by the oxidation of NADH? -- 5.5. The mitochondrial respiratory chain shares common features with the photosynthetic electron transport chain -- The complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain -- 5.6. Electron transport of the respiratory chain is coupled to the synthesis of ATP via proton transport -- Mitochondrial proton transport results in the formation of a membrane potential -- Mitochondrial ATP synthesis serves the energy demand of the cytosol -- 5.7. Plant mitochondria have special metabolic functions -- Mitochondria can oxidize surplus NADH without forming ATP -- NADH and NADPH from the cytosol can be oxidized by the respiratory chain of plant mitochondria -- 5.8. Compartmentation of mitochondrial metabolism requires specific membrane translocators -- Further reading -- 6. The Calvin cycle catalyzes photosynthetic CO2 assimilation -- 6.1. CO2 assimilation proceeds via the dark reaction of photosynthesis -- 6.2. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase catalyses the fixation of CO2 -- The oxygenation of ribulose bisphosphate: a costly side-reaction -- Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase: special features -- Activation of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase -- 6.3. The reduction of 3-phosphoglycerate yields triose phosphate -- 6.4. Ribulose bisphosphate is regenerated from triose phosphate -- 6.5. Beside the reductive pentose phosphate pathway there is also an oxidative pentose phosphate pathway -- 6.6. Reductive and Oxidative pentose phosphate pathways are regulated -- Reduced thioredoxins transmit the signal "illumination" to the enzymes -- The thioredoxin modulated activation of chloroplast enzymes releases a built-in blockage -- Multiple regulatory processes tune the reactions of the reductive pentose phosphate pathway -- Further reading -- 7. Phosphoglycolate formed by the oxygenase activity of RubisCO is recycled in the photorespiratory pathway -- 7.1. Ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate is recovered by recycling 2-phosphoglycolate -- 7.2. The NH4+ released in the photorespiratory pathway is refixed in the chloroplasts -- 7.3. Peroxisomes have to be provided with external reducing equivalents for the reduction of hydroxypyruvate -- Mitochondria export reducing equivalents via a malate-oxaloacetate shuttle -- A "malate valve" controls the export of reducing equivalents from the chloroplasts -- 7.4. The peroxisomal matrix is a special compartment for the disposal of toxic products -- 7.5. How high are the costs of the ribulose bisphosphate oxygenase reaction for the plant? -- 7.6. There is no net CO2 fixation at the compensation point -- 7.7. The photorespiratory pathway, although energy-consuming, may also have a useful function for the plant -- Further reading -- 8. Photosynthesis implies the consumption of water -- 8.1. The uptake of CO2 into the leaf is accompanied by an escape of water vapor -- 8.2. Stomata regulate the gas exchange of a leaf -- 8.3. The diffusive flux of CO2 into a plant cell -- 8.4. C4 plants perform CO2 assimilation with less water consumption than C3 plants -- The CO2 pump in C4 plants -- C4 metabolism of the NADP-malic enzyme type plants -- C4 metabolism of the NAD-malic enzyme type -- C4 metabolism of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase type -- Kranz-anatomy with its mesophyll and bundle sheath cells is not an obligatory requirement for C4 metabolism -- Enzymes of C4 metabolism are regulated by light -- Products of C4 metabolism can be identified by mass spectrometry -- C4 plants include important crop plants but also many persistent weeds -- 8.5. Crassulacean acid metabolism allows plants to survive even during a very severe water shortage -- CO2 fixed during the night is stored as malic acid -- Photosynthesis proceeds with closed stomata -- C4 as well as CAM metabolism developed several times during evolution -- Further reading -- 9. Polysaccharides are storage and transport forms of carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis -- Starch and sucrose are the main products of CO2 assimilation in many plants -- 9.1. Large quantities of carbohydrate can be stored as starch in the cell -- Starch is synthesized via ADP-glucose -- Degradation of starch proceeds in two different ways -- Surplus of photosynthesis products can be stored temporarily in chloroplasts as starch -- 9.2. Sucrose synthesis takes place in the sytosol -- 9.3. The utilization of the photosynthesis product triose phosphate is strictly regulated -- Fructose 1, 6-bisphosphatase is an entrance valve of the sucrose synthesis pathway -- Sucrose phosphate synthase is regulated by metabolites and by covalent modification -- Partitioning of assimilates between sucrose and starch is due to the interplay of several regulatory mechanisms -- Trehalose is an important signal mediator --
  • Contents note continued: 9.4. In some plants assimilates from the leaves are exported as sugar alcohols or oligosaccharides of the raffinose family -- 9.5. Fructans are deposited as storage compounds in the vacuole -- 9.6. Cellulose is synthesized by enzymes located in the plasma membrane -- Synthesis of callose is often induced by wounding -- Cell wall polysaccharides are also synthesized in the Golgi apparatus -- Further reading -- 10. Nitrate assimilation is essential for the synthesis of organic matter -- 10.1. The reduction of nitrate to NH3 proceeds in two reactions -- Nitrate is reduced to nitrite in the cytosol -- The reduction of nitrite to ammonia proceeds in the plastids -- The fixation of NH4+ proceeds in the same way as in the photorespiratory cycle -- 10.2. Nitrate assimilation also takes place in the roots -- The oxidative pentose phosphate pathway in leucoplasts provides reducing equivalents for nitrite reduction -- 10.3. Nitrate assimilation is strictly controlled -- The synthesis of the nitrate reductase protein is regulated at the level of gene expression -- Nitrate reductase is also regulated by reversible covalent modification -- 14-3-3 proteins are important metabolic regulators -- There are great similarities between the regulation of nitrate reductase and sucrose phosphate synthase -- 10.4. The end product of nitrate assimilation is a whole spectrum of amino acids -- CO2 assimilation provides the carbon skeletons to synthesize the end products of nitrate assimilation -- The synthesis of glutamate requires the participation of mitochondrial metabolism -- Biosynthesis of proline and arginine -- Aspartate is the precursor of five amino acids -- Acetolactate synthase participates in the synthesis of hydrophobic amino acids -- Aromatic amino acids are synthesized via the shikimate pathway -- Glyphosate acts as a herbicide -- A large proportion of the total plant matter can be formed by the shikimate pathway -- 10.5. Glutamate is precursor for chlorophylls and cytochromes -- Protophorhyrin is also precursor for heme synthesis -- Further reading -- 11. Nitrogen fixation enables plants to use the nitrogen of the air for growth -- 11.1. Legumes form a symbiosis with nodule-forming bacteria -- The nodule formation relies on a balanced interplay of bacterial and plant gene expression -- Metabolic products are exchanged between bacteroids and host cells -- Dinitrogenase reductase delivers electrons for the dinitrogenase reaction -- N2 as well as H+ are reduced by dinitrogenase -- 11.2. N2 fixation can proceed only at very low oxygen concentrations -- 11.3. The energy costs for utilizing N2 as a nitrogen source are much higher than for the utilization of NO3 -- 11.4. Plants improve their nutrition by symbiosis with fungi -- The arbuscular mycorrhiza is widespread -- Ectomycorrhiza supply trees with nutrients -- 11.5. Root nodule symbioses may have evolved from a pre-existing pathway for the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza -- Further reading -- 12. Sulfate assimilation enables the synthesis of sulfur containing compounds -- 12.1. Sulfate assimilation proceeds primarily by photosynthesis -- Sulfate assimilation has some parallels to nitrogen assimilation -- Sulfate is activated prior to reduction -- Sulfite reductase is similar to nitrite reductase -- H2S is fixed in the amino acid cysteine -- 12.2. Glutathione serves the cell as an antioxidant and is an agent for the detoxification of pollutants -- Xenobiotics are detoxified by conjugation -- Phytochelatins protect the plant against heavy metals -- 12.3. Methionine is synthesized from cysteine -- S-Adenosylmethionine is a universal methylation reagent -- 12.4. Excessive concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the air are toxic for plants -- Further reading -- 13. Phloem transport distributes photoassimilates to the various sites of consumption and storage -- 13.1. There are two modes of phloem loading -- 13.2. Phloem transport proceeds by mass flow -- 13.3. Sink tissues are supplied by phloem unloading -- Starch is deposited in plastids -- The glycolysis pathway plays a central role in the utilization of carbohydrates -- Further reading -- 14. Products of nitrate assimilation are deposited in plants as storage proteins -- 14.1. Globulins are the most abundant storage proteins -- 14.2. Prolamins are formed as storage proteins in grasses -- 14.3. 2S-Proteins are present seeds of dicot plants -- 14.4. Special proteins protect seeds from being eaten by animals -- 14.5. Synthesis of the storage proteins occurs at the rough endoplasmic reticulum -- 14.6. Proteinases mobilize the amino acids deposited in storage proteins -- Further reading -- 15. Lipids are membrane constituents and function as carbon stores -- 15.1. Polar lipids are important membrane constituents -- The fluidity of the membrane is governed by the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of the content of sterols -- Membrane lipids contain a variety of hydrophilic head groups -- Sphingolipids are important constituents of the plasma membrane -- 15.2. Triacylglycerols are storage compounds -- 15.3. The de novo synthesis of fatty acids takes place in the plastids -- Acetyl CoA is a precursor for the synthesis of fatty acids -- Acetyle CoA carboxylase is the first enzyme of fatty acid synthesis -- Further steps of fatty acid synthesis are also catalyzed by a multienzyme complex -- The first double bond in a newly synthesized fatty acid is formed by a soluble desaturase -- Acyl ACP synthesized as a product of fatty acid synthesis in the plastids serves two purposes -- 15.4. Glycerol 3-phosphate is a precursor for the synthesis of glycerolipids -- The ER membrane is the site of fatty acid elongation and desaturation -- Some of the plastid membrane lipids are synthesized via the eukaryotic pathway -- 15.5. Triacylglycerols are synthesized in the membranes of the endoplasmatic reticulum -- Plant fat is used for human nutrition and also as a raw material in industry -- Plant fats are customized by genetic engineering -- 15.6. Storage lipids are mobilized for the production of carbohydrates in the glyoxysomes during seed germination -- The glyoxylate cycle enables plants to synthesize hexoses from acetyl CoA -- Reactions with toxic intermediates take place in peroxisomes -- 15.7. Lipoxygenase is involved in the synthesis of oxylipins, which are defense and signal compounds -- Further reading -- 16. Secondary metabolites fulfill specific ecological functions in plants -- 16.1. Secondary metabolites often protect plants from pathogenic microorganisms and herbivores -- Microorganisms can be pathogens -- Plants synthesize phytoalexins in response to microbial infection -- Plant defense compounds can also be a risk for humans -- 16.2. Alkaloids comprise a variety of heterocyclic secondary metabolites -- 16.3. Some plants emit prussic acid when wounded by animals -- 16.4. Some wounded plants emit volatile mustard oils -- 16.5. Plants protect themselves by tricking herbivores with false amino acids -- Further reading -- 17. A large diversity of isoprenoids has multiple functions in plant metabolism -- 17.1. Higher plants have two different synthesis pathways for isoprenoids -- Acetyl CoA is a precursor for the synthesis of isoprenoids in the cytosol -- Pyruvate and D-glycerinaldehyde-3-phosphate are the precursors for the synthesis of isopentyl pyrophosphate in plastids -- 17.2. Prenyl transferases catalyze the association of isoprene units -- 17.3. Some plants emit isoprenes into the air -- 17.4. Many aromatic compounds derive from geranyl pyrophosphate -- 17.5. Farnesyl pyrophosphate is the precursor for the synthesis of sesquiterpenes -- Steroids are synthesized from farnesyl pyrophosphate -- 17.6. Geranylegeranyl pyrophosphate is the precursor for defense compounds, phytohormones and carotenoids -- Oleoresins protect trees from parasites -- Carotene synthesis delivers pigments to plants and provides an important vitamin for humans -- 17.7. A prenyl chain renders compounds lipid-soluble -- Proteins can be anchored in a membrane by prenylation -- Dolichols mediate the glucosylation of proteins -- 17.8. The regulation of isoprenoid synthesis -- 17.9. Isoprenoids are very stable and persistent substances -- Further reading -- 18. Phenylpropanoids comprise a multitude of plant secondary metabolites and cell wall components -- 18.1. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase catalyses the initial reaction of phenylpropanoid metabolism -- 18.2. Monooxygenases are involved in the synthesis of phenols -- 18.3. Phenylpropanoid compounds polymerize to macromolecules -- Lignans act as defense substances -- Lignin is formed by radical polymerization of phenylpropanoid derivatives -- Suberins form gas- and water-impermeable layers between cells -- Cutin is a gas- and water-impermeable constituent of the cuticle -- 18.4. The synthesis of flavonoids and stilbenes requires a second aromatic ring derived from acetate residues -- Some stilbenes are very potent natural fungicides -- 18.5. Flavonoids have multiple functions in plants -- 18.6. Anthocyanins are flower pigments and protect plants against excessive light -- 18.7. Tannins bind tightly to proteins and therefore have defense functions -- Further reading -- 19. Multiple signals regulate the growth and development of plant organs and enable their adaptation to environmental conditions -- 19.1. Signal chains known from animal metabolism also function in plants -- G-proteins act as molecular switches -- Small G-proteins have diverse regulatory functions -- Ca2+ is a component signal transduction chains --
  • Contents note continued: The phosphoinositol pathway controls the opening of Ca2+ channels -- Calmodulin mediates the signal function of Ca2+ ions -- Phosphorylated proteins are components of signal transduction chains -- 19.2. Phytohormones contain a variety of very different compounds -- 19.3. Auxin stimulates shoot elongation growth -- 19.4. Gibberellins regulate stem elongation -- 19.5. Cytokinins stimulate cell division -- 19.6. Abscisic acid controls the water balance of the plant -- 19.7. Ethylene makes fruit ripen -- 19.8. Plants also contain steroid and peptide hormones -- Brassinosteroids control plant development -- Polypeptides function as phytohormones -- Systemin induces defense against herbivore attack -- Phytosulfokines regulate cell proliferation -- A small protein causes the alkalization of cell culture medium -- Small cysteine-rich proteins regulate self-incompatibility -- 19.9. Defense reactions are triggered by the interplay of several signals -- Salicylic acid and jasmonic acid are signal molecules in pathogen defense -- 19.10. Light sensors regulate growth and development of plants -- Phytochromes function as sensors for red light -- Phototropin and cryptochromes are blue light receptors -- Further reading -- 20. A plant cell has three different genomes -- 20.1. In the nucleus the genetic information is divided among several chromosomes -- The DNA sequences of plant nuclear genomes have been analyzed -- 20.2. The DNA of the nuclear genome is transcribed by three specialized RNA polymerases -- The transcription of structural genes is regulated -- Promoter and regulatory sequences regulate the transcription of genes -- Transcription factors regulate the transcription of a gene -- Small (sm)RNAs inhibit gene expression by inactivating messenger RNAs -- The transcription of structural genes requires a complex transcription apparatus -- The formation of the messenger RNA requires processing -- rRNA and tRNA are synthesized by RNA polymerase I and III -- 20.3. DNA polymorphism yields genetic markers for plant breeding -- Individuals of the same species can be differentiated by restriction fragment lenght polymorphism -- The RAPD technique is a simple method for investigating DNA polymorphism -- The polymorphism of micro-satellite DNA is used as a genetic marker -- 20.4. Transposable DNA elements roam through the genome -- 20.5. Viruses are present in most plant cells -- Retrotransposons are degenerated retroviruses -- 20.6. Plastids possess a circular genome -- The transcription apparatus of the plastids resembles that of bacteria -- 20.7. The mitochondrial genome of plants varies largely in its size -- Mitochondrial RNA is corrected after transcription via editing -- Male sterility of plants caused by the mitochondria is an important tool in hybrid breeding -- Further reading -- 21. Protein biosynthesis occurs in three different locations of a cell -- 21.1. Protein synthesis is catalyzed by ribosomes -- A peptide chain is synthesized -- Specific inhibitors of the translation can be used to decide whether a protein is encoded in the nucleus or the genome of plastids or mitochondria -- The translation is regulated -- 21.2. Proteins attain their three-dimensional structure by controlled folding -- The folding of a protein is a multistep process -- Proteins are protected during the folding process -- Heat shock proteins protect against heat damage -- Chaperones bind to unfolded proteins -- 21.3. Nuclear encoded proteins are distributed throuthout various cell compartments -- Most of the proteins imported into the mitochondria have to cross two membranes -- The import of proteins into chloroplasts requires several translocation complexes -- Proteins are imported into peroxisomes in the folded state -- 21.4. Proteins are degraded by proteasomes in a strictly controlled manner -- Further reading -- 22. Biotechnology alters plants to meet requirements of agriculture, nutrition and industry -- 22.1. A gene is isolated -- A gene library is required for the isolation of a gene -- A gene library can be kept in phages -- A gene library can also be propagated in plasmids -- A gene library is screened for a certain gene -- A clone is identified by antibodies which specifically detect the gene product -- A clone can also be identified by DNA probes -- Genes encoding unknown proteins can be functionally assigned by complementation -- Genes can be identified with the help of transposons or T-DNA -- 22.2. Agrobacteria can transform plant cells -- The Ti-plasmid contains the genetic information for tumor formation -- 22.3. Ti-plasmids are used as transformation vectors -- A new plant is regenerated after the transformation of a leaf cell -- Plants can be transformed by a modified shotgun -- Protoplasts can be transformed by the uptake of DNA -- Plastid transformation to generate transgenic plants is advantageous for the environment -- 22.4. Selected promoters enable the defined expression of a foreign gene -- Gene products are directed into certain subcellular compartments by targeting sequences -- 22.5. Genes can be turned off via plant transformation -- 22.6. Plant genetic engineering can be used for many different purposes -- Plants are protected against some insects by the BT protein -- Plants can be protected against viruses by gene technology -- The generation of fungus-resistant plants is still at an early stage -- Non-selective herbicides can be used as a selective herbicide by the generation of herbicide-resistant plants -- Plant genetic engineering is used for the improvement of the yield and quality of crop products -- Genetic engineering is used to produce renewable resources for industry -- Genetic engineering provides a chance for increasing the protection of crop plants against environmental stress -- The introduction of transgenic cultivars requires a risk analysis -- Further reading
Control code
ocn663446976
Dimensions
24 cm
Edition
4th ed
Extent
xxiv, 622 p.
Isbn
9780123849861
Isbn Type
(hbk.)
Other physical details
ill.
System control number
(OCoLC)663446976
Label
Plant biochemistry, Hans-Walter Heldt, Birgit Piechulla ; in cooperation with Fiona Heldt
Publication
Note
Translation of the 4th German edition [of Pflanzenbiochemie]
Bibliography note
Includes bibliographical references and index
Contents
  • 1. A leaf cell consists of several metabolic compartments -- 1.1. The cell wall gives the plant cell mechanical stability -- The cell wall consists mainly of carbohydrates and proteins -- Plasmadesmata connect neighboring cells -- 1.2. Vacuoles have multiple functions -- 1.3. Plastids have evolved from cyanobacteria -- 1.4. Mitochondria also result from endosymbionts -- 1.5. Peroxisomes are the site of reactions in which toxic intermediates are formed -- 1.6. The endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus form a network for the distribution of biosynthesis products -- 1.7. Functionally intact cell organelles can be isolated from plant cells -- 1.8. Various transport processes facilitate the exchange of metabolites between different compartments -- 1.9. Translocators catalyze the specific transport of metabolic substrates and products -- Metabolite transport is achieved by a conformational change of the translocator -- Aquaporins make cell membranes permeable for water -- 1.10. Ion channels have a very high transport capacity -- 1.11. Porins consist of β-sheet structures -- Further reading -- 2. The use of energy from sunlight by photosynthesis is the basis of life on earth -- 2.1. How did photosynthesis start? -- 2.2. Pigments capture energy from sunlight -- The energy content of light depends on its wavelength -- Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment -- 2.3. Light absorption excites the chlorophyll molecule -- 2.4. An antenna is required to capture light -- How is the excitation energy of the photons captured in the antennae and transferred to the reaction centers? -- The function of an antenna is illustrated by the antenna of photosystem II -- Phycobilisomes enable cyanobacteria and red algae to carry out photosynthesis even in dim light -- Further reading -- 3. Photosynthesis is an electron transport process -- 3.1. The Photosynthetic machinery is constructed from modules -- 3.2. A reductant and an oxidant are formed during photosynthesis -- 3.3. The basic structure of a photosynthetic reaction center has been resolved by X-ray structure analysis -- X-ray structure analysis of the photosynthetic reaction center -- The reaction center of Rhodopseudomonas viridis has a symmetrical structure -- 3.4. How does a reaction center function? -- 3.5. Two photosynthetic reaction centers are arranged in tandem in photosynthesis of algae and plants -- 3.6. Water is split by photosystem II -- Photosystem II complex is very similar to the reaction center in purple bacteria -- Mechanized agriculture usually necessitates the use of herbicides -- 3.7. The cytochrome-b6lf complex mediates electron transport between photosystem II and photosystem I -- Iron atoms in cytochromes and in iron-sulfur centers have a central function as redox carriers -- The electron transport by the cytochrome-b6lf complex is coupled to a proton transport -- The number of protons pumped through the cyt-b6lf complex can be doubled by a Q-cycle -- 3.8. Photosystem I reduces NADP+ -- The light energy driving the cyclic electron transport of PSI is only utilized for the synthesis of ATP -- 3.9. In the absence of other acceptors electrons can be transferred from photosystem I to oxygen -- 3.10. Regulatory processes control the distribution of the captured photons between the two photosystems -- Excess light energy is eliminated as heat -- Further reading -- 4. ATP is generated by photosynthesis -- 4.1. A proton gradient serves as an energy-rich intermediate state during ATP synthesis -- 4.2. The electron chemical proton gradient can be dissipated by uncouplers to heat -- The chemiosmotic hypothesis was proved experimentally -- 4.3. H+-ATP synthases from bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria have a common basic structure -- X-ray structure analysis of the F1 part of ATP synthase yields an insight into the machinery of ATP synthesis -- 4.4. The synthesis of ATP is effected by a conformation change of the protein -- In photosynthetic electron transport the stoichiometry between the formation of NADPH and ATP is still a matter of debate -- H+-ATP synthase of chloroplasts is regulated by light -- V-ATPase is related to the F-ATP synthase -- Further reading -- 5. Mitochondria are the power station of the cell -- 5.1. Biological oxidation is preceded by a degradation of substrates to form bound hydrogen and CO2 -- 5.2. Mitochondria are the sites of cell respiration -- Mitochondria form a separated metabolic compartment -- 5.3. Degradation of substrates applicable for biological oxidation takes place in the matrix compartment -- Pyruvate is oxidized by a multienzyme complex -- Acetate is completely oxidized in the citrate cycle -- A loss of intermediates of the citrate cycle is replenished by anaplerotic reactions -- 5.4. How much energy can be gained by the oxidation of NADH? -- 5.5. The mitochondrial respiratory chain shares common features with the photosynthetic electron transport chain -- The complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain -- 5.6. Electron transport of the respiratory chain is coupled to the synthesis of ATP via proton transport -- Mitochondrial proton transport results in the formation of a membrane potential -- Mitochondrial ATP synthesis serves the energy demand of the cytosol -- 5.7. Plant mitochondria have special metabolic functions -- Mitochondria can oxidize surplus NADH without forming ATP -- NADH and NADPH from the cytosol can be oxidized by the respiratory chain of plant mitochondria -- 5.8. Compartmentation of mitochondrial metabolism requires specific membrane translocators -- Further reading -- 6. The Calvin cycle catalyzes photosynthetic CO2 assimilation -- 6.1. CO2 assimilation proceeds via the dark reaction of photosynthesis -- 6.2. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase catalyses the fixation of CO2 -- The oxygenation of ribulose bisphosphate: a costly side-reaction -- Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase: special features -- Activation of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase -- 6.3. The reduction of 3-phosphoglycerate yields triose phosphate -- 6.4. Ribulose bisphosphate is regenerated from triose phosphate -- 6.5. Beside the reductive pentose phosphate pathway there is also an oxidative pentose phosphate pathway -- 6.6. Reductive and Oxidative pentose phosphate pathways are regulated -- Reduced thioredoxins transmit the signal "illumination" to the enzymes -- The thioredoxin modulated activation of chloroplast enzymes releases a built-in blockage -- Multiple regulatory processes tune the reactions of the reductive pentose phosphate pathway -- Further reading -- 7. Phosphoglycolate formed by the oxygenase activity of RubisCO is recycled in the photorespiratory pathway -- 7.1. Ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate is recovered by recycling 2-phosphoglycolate -- 7.2. The NH4+ released in the photorespiratory pathway is refixed in the chloroplasts -- 7.3. Peroxisomes have to be provided with external reducing equivalents for the reduction of hydroxypyruvate -- Mitochondria export reducing equivalents via a malate-oxaloacetate shuttle -- A "malate valve" controls the export of reducing equivalents from the chloroplasts -- 7.4. The peroxisomal matrix is a special compartment for the disposal of toxic products -- 7.5. How high are the costs of the ribulose bisphosphate oxygenase reaction for the plant? -- 7.6. There is no net CO2 fixation at the compensation point -- 7.7. The photorespiratory pathway, although energy-consuming, may also have a useful function for the plant -- Further reading -- 8. Photosynthesis implies the consumption of water -- 8.1. The uptake of CO2 into the leaf is accompanied by an escape of water vapor -- 8.2. Stomata regulate the gas exchange of a leaf -- 8.3. The diffusive flux of CO2 into a plant cell -- 8.4. C4 plants perform CO2 assimilation with less water consumption than C3 plants -- The CO2 pump in C4 plants -- C4 metabolism of the NADP-malic enzyme type plants -- C4 metabolism of the NAD-malic enzyme type -- C4 metabolism of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase type -- Kranz-anatomy with its mesophyll and bundle sheath cells is not an obligatory requirement for C4 metabolism -- Enzymes of C4 metabolism are regulated by light -- Products of C4 metabolism can be identified by mass spectrometry -- C4 plants include important crop plants but also many persistent weeds -- 8.5. Crassulacean acid metabolism allows plants to survive even during a very severe water shortage -- CO2 fixed during the night is stored as malic acid -- Photosynthesis proceeds with closed stomata -- C4 as well as CAM metabolism developed several times during evolution -- Further reading -- 9. Polysaccharides are storage and transport forms of carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis -- Starch and sucrose are the main products of CO2 assimilation in many plants -- 9.1. Large quantities of carbohydrate can be stored as starch in the cell -- Starch is synthesized via ADP-glucose -- Degradation of starch proceeds in two different ways -- Surplus of photosynthesis products can be stored temporarily in chloroplasts as starch -- 9.2. Sucrose synthesis takes place in the sytosol -- 9.3. The utilization of the photosynthesis product triose phosphate is strictly regulated -- Fructose 1, 6-bisphosphatase is an entrance valve of the sucrose synthesis pathway -- Sucrose phosphate synthase is regulated by metabolites and by covalent modification -- Partitioning of assimilates between sucrose and starch is due to the interplay of several regulatory mechanisms -- Trehalose is an important signal mediator --
  • Contents note continued: 9.4. In some plants assimilates from the leaves are exported as sugar alcohols or oligosaccharides of the raffinose family -- 9.5. Fructans are deposited as storage compounds in the vacuole -- 9.6. Cellulose is synthesized by enzymes located in the plasma membrane -- Synthesis of callose is often induced by wounding -- Cell wall polysaccharides are also synthesized in the Golgi apparatus -- Further reading -- 10. Nitrate assimilation is essential for the synthesis of organic matter -- 10.1. The reduction of nitrate to NH3 proceeds in two reactions -- Nitrate is reduced to nitrite in the cytosol -- The reduction of nitrite to ammonia proceeds in the plastids -- The fixation of NH4+ proceeds in the same way as in the photorespiratory cycle -- 10.2. Nitrate assimilation also takes place in the roots -- The oxidative pentose phosphate pathway in leucoplasts provides reducing equivalents for nitrite reduction -- 10.3. Nitrate assimilation is strictly controlled -- The synthesis of the nitrate reductase protein is regulated at the level of gene expression -- Nitrate reductase is also regulated by reversible covalent modification -- 14-3-3 proteins are important metabolic regulators -- There are great similarities between the regulation of nitrate reductase and sucrose phosphate synthase -- 10.4. The end product of nitrate assimilation is a whole spectrum of amino acids -- CO2 assimilation provides the carbon skeletons to synthesize the end products of nitrate assimilation -- The synthesis of glutamate requires the participation of mitochondrial metabolism -- Biosynthesis of proline and arginine -- Aspartate is the precursor of five amino acids -- Acetolactate synthase participates in the synthesis of hydrophobic amino acids -- Aromatic amino acids are synthesized via the shikimate pathway -- Glyphosate acts as a herbicide -- A large proportion of the total plant matter can be formed by the shikimate pathway -- 10.5. Glutamate is precursor for chlorophylls and cytochromes -- Protophorhyrin is also precursor for heme synthesis -- Further reading -- 11. Nitrogen fixation enables plants to use the nitrogen of the air for growth -- 11.1. Legumes form a symbiosis with nodule-forming bacteria -- The nodule formation relies on a balanced interplay of bacterial and plant gene expression -- Metabolic products are exchanged between bacteroids and host cells -- Dinitrogenase reductase delivers electrons for the dinitrogenase reaction -- N2 as well as H+ are reduced by dinitrogenase -- 11.2. N2 fixation can proceed only at very low oxygen concentrations -- 11.3. The energy costs for utilizing N2 as a nitrogen source are much higher than for the utilization of NO3 -- 11.4. Plants improve their nutrition by symbiosis with fungi -- The arbuscular mycorrhiza is widespread -- Ectomycorrhiza supply trees with nutrients -- 11.5. Root nodule symbioses may have evolved from a pre-existing pathway for the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza -- Further reading -- 12. Sulfate assimilation enables the synthesis of sulfur containing compounds -- 12.1. Sulfate assimilation proceeds primarily by photosynthesis -- Sulfate assimilation has some parallels to nitrogen assimilation -- Sulfate is activated prior to reduction -- Sulfite reductase is similar to nitrite reductase -- H2S is fixed in the amino acid cysteine -- 12.2. Glutathione serves the cell as an antioxidant and is an agent for the detoxification of pollutants -- Xenobiotics are detoxified by conjugation -- Phytochelatins protect the plant against heavy metals -- 12.3. Methionine is synthesized from cysteine -- S-Adenosylmethionine is a universal methylation reagent -- 12.4. Excessive concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the air are toxic for plants -- Further reading -- 13. Phloem transport distributes photoassimilates to the various sites of consumption and storage -- 13.1. There are two modes of phloem loading -- 13.2. Phloem transport proceeds by mass flow -- 13.3. Sink tissues are supplied by phloem unloading -- Starch is deposited in plastids -- The glycolysis pathway plays a central role in the utilization of carbohydrates -- Further reading -- 14. Products of nitrate assimilation are deposited in plants as storage proteins -- 14.1. Globulins are the most abundant storage proteins -- 14.2. Prolamins are formed as storage proteins in grasses -- 14.3. 2S-Proteins are present seeds of dicot plants -- 14.4. Special proteins protect seeds from being eaten by animals -- 14.5. Synthesis of the storage proteins occurs at the rough endoplasmic reticulum -- 14.6. Proteinases mobilize the amino acids deposited in storage proteins -- Further reading -- 15. Lipids are membrane constituents and function as carbon stores -- 15.1. Polar lipids are important membrane constituents -- The fluidity of the membrane is governed by the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of the content of sterols -- Membrane lipids contain a variety of hydrophilic head groups -- Sphingolipids are important constituents of the plasma membrane -- 15.2. Triacylglycerols are storage compounds -- 15.3. The de novo synthesis of fatty acids takes place in the plastids -- Acetyl CoA is a precursor for the synthesis of fatty acids -- Acetyle CoA carboxylase is the first enzyme of fatty acid synthesis -- Further steps of fatty acid synthesis are also catalyzed by a multienzyme complex -- The first double bond in a newly synthesized fatty acid is formed by a soluble desaturase -- Acyl ACP synthesized as a product of fatty acid synthesis in the plastids serves two purposes -- 15.4. Glycerol 3-phosphate is a precursor for the synthesis of glycerolipids -- The ER membrane is the site of fatty acid elongation and desaturation -- Some of the plastid membrane lipids are synthesized via the eukaryotic pathway -- 15.5. Triacylglycerols are synthesized in the membranes of the endoplasmatic reticulum -- Plant fat is used for human nutrition and also as a raw material in industry -- Plant fats are customized by genetic engineering -- 15.6. Storage lipids are mobilized for the production of carbohydrates in the glyoxysomes during seed germination -- The glyoxylate cycle enables plants to synthesize hexoses from acetyl CoA -- Reactions with toxic intermediates take place in peroxisomes -- 15.7. Lipoxygenase is involved in the synthesis of oxylipins, which are defense and signal compounds -- Further reading -- 16. Secondary metabolites fulfill specific ecological functions in plants -- 16.1. Secondary metabolites often protect plants from pathogenic microorganisms and herbivores -- Microorganisms can be pathogens -- Plants synthesize phytoalexins in response to microbial infection -- Plant defense compounds can also be a risk for humans -- 16.2. Alkaloids comprise a variety of heterocyclic secondary metabolites -- 16.3. Some plants emit prussic acid when wounded by animals -- 16.4. Some wounded plants emit volatile mustard oils -- 16.5. Plants protect themselves by tricking herbivores with false amino acids -- Further reading -- 17. A large diversity of isoprenoids has multiple functions in plant metabolism -- 17.1. Higher plants have two different synthesis pathways for isoprenoids -- Acetyl CoA is a precursor for the synthesis of isoprenoids in the cytosol -- Pyruvate and D-glycerinaldehyde-3-phosphate are the precursors for the synthesis of isopentyl pyrophosphate in plastids -- 17.2. Prenyl transferases catalyze the association of isoprene units -- 17.3. Some plants emit isoprenes into the air -- 17.4. Many aromatic compounds derive from geranyl pyrophosphate -- 17.5. Farnesyl pyrophosphate is the precursor for the synthesis of sesquiterpenes -- Steroids are synthesized from farnesyl pyrophosphate -- 17.6. Geranylegeranyl pyrophosphate is the precursor for defense compounds, phytohormones and carotenoids -- Oleoresins protect trees from parasites -- Carotene synthesis delivers pigments to plants and provides an important vitamin for humans -- 17.7. A prenyl chain renders compounds lipid-soluble -- Proteins can be anchored in a membrane by prenylation -- Dolichols mediate the glucosylation of proteins -- 17.8. The regulation of isoprenoid synthesis -- 17.9. Isoprenoids are very stable and persistent substances -- Further reading -- 18. Phenylpropanoids comprise a multitude of plant secondary metabolites and cell wall components -- 18.1. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase catalyses the initial reaction of phenylpropanoid metabolism -- 18.2. Monooxygenases are involved in the synthesis of phenols -- 18.3. Phenylpropanoid compounds polymerize to macromolecules -- Lignans act as defense substances -- Lignin is formed by radical polymerization of phenylpropanoid derivatives -- Suberins form gas- and water-impermeable layers between cells -- Cutin is a gas- and water-impermeable constituent of the cuticle -- 18.4. The synthesis of flavonoids and stilbenes requires a second aromatic ring derived from acetate residues -- Some stilbenes are very potent natural fungicides -- 18.5. Flavonoids have multiple functions in plants -- 18.6. Anthocyanins are flower pigments and protect plants against excessive light -- 18.7. Tannins bind tightly to proteins and therefore have defense functions -- Further reading -- 19. Multiple signals regulate the growth and development of plant organs and enable their adaptation to environmental conditions -- 19.1. Signal chains known from animal metabolism also function in plants -- G-proteins act as molecular switches -- Small G-proteins have diverse regulatory functions -- Ca2+ is a component signal transduction chains --
  • Contents note continued: The phosphoinositol pathway controls the opening of Ca2+ channels -- Calmodulin mediates the signal function of Ca2+ ions -- Phosphorylated proteins are components of signal transduction chains -- 19.2. Phytohormones contain a variety of very different compounds -- 19.3. Auxin stimulates shoot elongation growth -- 19.4. Gibberellins regulate stem elongation -- 19.5. Cytokinins stimulate cell division -- 19.6. Abscisic acid controls the water balance of the plant -- 19.7. Ethylene makes fruit ripen -- 19.8. Plants also contain steroid and peptide hormones -- Brassinosteroids control plant development -- Polypeptides function as phytohormones -- Systemin induces defense against herbivore attack -- Phytosulfokines regulate cell proliferation -- A small protein causes the alkalization of cell culture medium -- Small cysteine-rich proteins regulate self-incompatibility -- 19.9. Defense reactions are triggered by the interplay of several signals -- Salicylic acid and jasmonic acid are signal molecules in pathogen defense -- 19.10. Light sensors regulate growth and development of plants -- Phytochromes function as sensors for red light -- Phototropin and cryptochromes are blue light receptors -- Further reading -- 20. A plant cell has three different genomes -- 20.1. In the nucleus the genetic information is divided among several chromosomes -- The DNA sequences of plant nuclear genomes have been analyzed -- 20.2. The DNA of the nuclear genome is transcribed by three specialized RNA polymerases -- The transcription of structural genes is regulated -- Promoter and regulatory sequences regulate the transcription of genes -- Transcription factors regulate the transcription of a gene -- Small (sm)RNAs inhibit gene expression by inactivating messenger RNAs -- The transcription of structural genes requires a complex transcription apparatus -- The formation of the messenger RNA requires processing -- rRNA and tRNA are synthesized by RNA polymerase I and III -- 20.3. DNA polymorphism yields genetic markers for plant breeding -- Individuals of the same species can be differentiated by restriction fragment lenght polymorphism -- The RAPD technique is a simple method for investigating DNA polymorphism -- The polymorphism of micro-satellite DNA is used as a genetic marker -- 20.4. Transposable DNA elements roam through the genome -- 20.5. Viruses are present in most plant cells -- Retrotransposons are degenerated retroviruses -- 20.6. Plastids possess a circular genome -- The transcription apparatus of the plastids resembles that of bacteria -- 20.7. The mitochondrial genome of plants varies largely in its size -- Mitochondrial RNA is corrected after transcription via editing -- Male sterility of plants caused by the mitochondria is an important tool in hybrid breeding -- Further reading -- 21. Protein biosynthesis occurs in three different locations of a cell -- 21.1. Protein synthesis is catalyzed by ribosomes -- A peptide chain is synthesized -- Specific inhibitors of the translation can be used to decide whether a protein is encoded in the nucleus or the genome of plastids or mitochondria -- The translation is regulated -- 21.2. Proteins attain their three-dimensional structure by controlled folding -- The folding of a protein is a multistep process -- Proteins are protected during the folding process -- Heat shock proteins protect against heat damage -- Chaperones bind to unfolded proteins -- 21.3. Nuclear encoded proteins are distributed throuthout various cell compartments -- Most of the proteins imported into the mitochondria have to cross two membranes -- The import of proteins into chloroplasts requires several translocation complexes -- Proteins are imported into peroxisomes in the folded state -- 21.4. Proteins are degraded by proteasomes in a strictly controlled manner -- Further reading -- 22. Biotechnology alters plants to meet requirements of agriculture, nutrition and industry -- 22.1. A gene is isolated -- A gene library is required for the isolation of a gene -- A gene library can be kept in phages -- A gene library can also be propagated in plasmids -- A gene library is screened for a certain gene -- A clone is identified by antibodies which specifically detect the gene product -- A clone can also be identified by DNA probes -- Genes encoding unknown proteins can be functionally assigned by complementation -- Genes can be identified with the help of transposons or T-DNA -- 22.2. Agrobacteria can transform plant cells -- The Ti-plasmid contains the genetic information for tumor formation -- 22.3. Ti-plasmids are used as transformation vectors -- A new plant is regenerated after the transformation of a leaf cell -- Plants can be transformed by a modified shotgun -- Protoplasts can be transformed by the uptake of DNA -- Plastid transformation to generate transgenic plants is advantageous for the environment -- 22.4. Selected promoters enable the defined expression of a foreign gene -- Gene products are directed into certain subcellular compartments by targeting sequences -- 22.5. Genes can be turned off via plant transformation -- 22.6. Plant genetic engineering can be used for many different purposes -- Plants are protected against some insects by the BT protein -- Plants can be protected against viruses by gene technology -- The generation of fungus-resistant plants is still at an early stage -- Non-selective herbicides can be used as a selective herbicide by the generation of herbicide-resistant plants -- Plant genetic engineering is used for the improvement of the yield and quality of crop products -- Genetic engineering is used to produce renewable resources for industry -- Genetic engineering provides a chance for increasing the protection of crop plants against environmental stress -- The introduction of transgenic cultivars requires a risk analysis -- Further reading
Control code
ocn663446976
Dimensions
24 cm
Edition
4th ed
Extent
xxiv, 622 p.
Isbn
9780123849861
Isbn Type
(hbk.)
Other physical details
ill.
System control number
(OCoLC)663446976

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